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This timeline attempts to lay out the history of Westeros and Essos based on dates and information given in the novels and supporting material.

Dates are given in the calendar of Aegon's Landing, marking the date of Aegon the Conqueror's invasion of Westeros, although this is slightly erroneous as the calendar began when Aegon entered the city of Oldtown in triumph after his victory on the Field of Fire, some weeks or months later.

Before Aegon's LandingEdit

Dawn Age (before -12,000)
In the Dawn Age, Westeros is inhabited by the Children of the Forest, and possibly by giants in the far North.
ca. -12,000
The First Men come to Westeros from the eastern continent, via a land bridge then connecting the two land masses. The First Men introduce bronze, leather shields, and horses to the continent. After the initial clashes with the Children of the Forest, which includes the destruction of the land bridge and the abortive destruction of the Neck, the First Men reconcile with the Children and sign the Pact on the Isle of Faces, which brings about a four thousand year peace in Westeros. The First Men adopt the gods of the Children, the nameless gods of the forest. The fortress of Moat Cailin is built circa 10,000 years ago.
The Long Night (Age of Heroes, ca. -8000)
At the time of a terrible winter that seems to last for a generation, a demonic race called the Others invades from the north and nearly conquers Westeros. The Others are finally defeated in the War for the Dawn by an alliance of men wielding fire and obsidian weapons led by a great hero, who in an eastern tradition is named 'Azor Ahai', and wields a great sword of fire named Lightbringer. This is the time when the Wall is built, a giant fortification in the north of the continent protecting the races of men from the menaces of the north. The Sworn Brotherhood of the Night's Watch is created to man and guard it. According to other legends, this is also the time when the castle of Storm's End is built in the south, and the designer of the Wall, Brandon Stark (called Bran the Builder), also constructs Winterfell and becomes the first King in the North.
After ca. -8,000
The thirteenth Lord Commander of the Night's Watch is seduced by a wildling woman from beyond the Wall and becomes the Night's King, with the Watch as his personal army. The Starks in Winterfell and the King-beyond-the-Wall, Joramun, join forces to defeat the Night's King and restore honour to the Watch. This may be the same Joramun who also finds the Horn of Winter, which it is said he uses to awaken giants from the earth.
ca. -6,000
Seven holy beings appear in the Hills of Andalos on the eastern continent, apparently avatars of a supreme god. The people of the hills become their worshippers. The Andals, as they become known, invade Westeros with steel weapons and the new religion of the Faith of the Seven. They fight both the First Men and the Children of the Forest, finally extinguishing the latter everywhere south of the Wall. After centuries of fighting, the Andals establish six kingdoms in the south, while the north remains in the hands of the First Men, due in large part to the strategically located fortress of Moat Cailin resisting multiple attempts to take it and thereafter serving as the door between North and South.
ca. -5,000
The shepherds of the lands of Valyria on the eastern continent discover dragons lairing in the Fourteen Fires, a great ring of volcanoes across the neck of the Valyrian Peninsula. They tame the dragons and use them to forge a great empire, throwing down the eastern rival of Ghis in warfare five times before it finally capitulates. The Valyrian Freehold is forged.
ca. -1,700
A warrior of Dorne forges a great and powerful sword from a fallen meteorite. The sword, Dawn, becomes the greatest heirloom of House Dayne. The castle of Starfall is named for this occasion.
ca. -1,100
Four Valyrian candles are brought to the Citadel in Oldtown.
ca. -700
The Valyrian Freehold's slow westward expansion brings it to the lands watered by the great River Rhoyne, a vast waterway near the west coast of Essos. They destroy the city of Arnar when it refuses to surrender. Nymeria, warrior-queen of the Rhoynar city-states, evacuates her people in ten thousand ships that cross the Narrow Sea and land in Dorne. Winning an alliance with Lord Mors Martell, the Rhoynar unify the fractious land under the rule of Sunspear and establish House Martell as the ruling house of Dorne. Mors adopts the Rhoynish title 'Prince' rather than 'King'. The Rhoynar bring no greater political turmoil, though the southernmost kingdoms are heavily influenced by their customs, including equal primogeniture.
ca. -500
The Valyrian Freehold conquers much of what is now the area of the southern Free Cities. A religious sect, the Moonsingers, lead many thousands of refugees north to a remote northern lagoon protected by encircling mountains and mists, and there found the Secret City of Braavos. They later build the Titan of Braavos, a great statue which also serves as defensive fortification.
ca. -400
The Boltons of the Dreadfort rebel against the King in the North. They are defeated in battle, driven back to the Dreadfort and besieged for four years before they finally surrender and swear fealty to King Harlon Stark once again.
ca. -300
The Quill and Tankard tavern opens in Oldtown.
ca. -200
The Valyrian Freehold annexes the island of Dragonstone. A Valyrian noble family, the Targaryens, take control of the island. According to legend, they chose this posting at the urgings of Aenar, a member of the family with prophetic visions.
ca. -100
The Doom of Valyria takes place. The nature of the Doom is unclear, save that heavy volcanic activity is involved. The Valyrian Peninsula is shattered and the city of Valyria is laid waste, although not completely destroyed. The dragons of Valyria are virtually wiped out. The Valyrian Freehold fractures apart. The western coastal cities become independent, naming themselves the Free Cities. Braavos reveals itself to the other cities, eventually becoming the most powerful of them through their vast fleet and economic power. The cities of Slaver's Bay become independent again, although Ghiscari power begins building again in the south. The warrior-nomads of the vast eastern plains become more emboldened by the fall of Valyria and their dominant tribe, the Dothraki, begins raiding the surrounding lands. The Targaryens remain safe on Dragonstone, the guardians of possibly the last three dragons in the western world. The Targaryens reject a request for aid from the rulers of Volantis is conquering the other Free Cities in the name of Valyria. The century following the Doom becomes known as the Bleeding Years.

After Aegon's LandingEdit

1 After the Landing - The War of Conquest
One century after the Doom of Valyria, Aegon Targaryen invades, subdues, and unites the majority of Westeros under his banner and constructs a new capital city at King's Landing. He is unable to conquer Dorne and allows it to remain sovereign. With the destruction of the last Storm King, Argilac the Arrogant, and the death of the last King of the Reach, control of the castle of Storm's End passes to Aegon's bastard half-brother Orys Baratheon, and of Highgarden to Lord Harlen Tyrell. Edmyn Tully of Riverrun is named Lord of the Riverlands and Vickon Greyjoy of Pyke becomes Lord of the Iron Islands.
37 AL
On Aegon's death, the Faith of the Seven revolts against the Targaryens. King Aenys assigns his brother, heir and Hand of the King, Maegor, to deal with the crisis.
48 AL
Death of King Maegor, the Cruel. King Jaehaerys ends the rebellion through diplomacy, promising amnesty if the Faith Militant disbands. They agree. Jaehaerys becomes known as 'The Conciliator'.
129-131 AL
The Dance of Dragons, the first major Westerosi civil war, between Aegon II Targaryen and his half-sister Rhaenyra Targaryen for control of the Iron Throne. Many lesser branches of House Targaryen and most of their dragons are extinguished in the conflict. After Rhaenyra's death, the war continues in the name of her son, Aegon III. When Aegon II dies without issue, the war ends by default with Aegon III being crowned. The last Targaryen dragon dies during Aegon III's reign, earning him the name 'Dragonbane'. The dragon leaves behind three stone eggs, which the Targaryens fail to hatch.
143 AL
Birth of Prince Daeron Targaryen.
145 AL
Birth of Princess Daena Targaryen
147 AL
Birth of Princess Rhaena Targaryen.
150 AL
Birth of Princess Elaena Targaryen.
157-161 AL
The reign of King Daeron I, the Boy King, who conquers Dorne, but is unable to hold it. Forty thousand die during the war. Daeron's brother, King Baelor, makes his peace with Dorne by walking the Boneway barefoot and rescuing his cousin Aemon the Dragonknight from a viper pit.
160 AL
Winterfell's tallest tower is struck by lightning and set alight. The upper two-thirds of the tower collapse. Reconstruction is not attempted due to fears of its stability.
161-171 AL
The reign of Baelor the Blessed, septon and king. Baelor builds a huge sept in King's Landing, which afterwards is called the Great Sept of Baelor and becomes the seat of the Faith in Westeros, taking over from the Starry Sept of Oldtown. Baelor locks his sisters Daena, Rhaena and Elaena in the Maidenvault of the Red Keep so the sight of them will not tempt him to carnal thoughts. Despite this, his sister Daena the Defiant has an affair with her cousin Aegon (later Aegon IV) and gives birth to a bastard son, Daemon Blackfyre.
ca. 169-170 AL
Prince Daeron, second cousin of King Baelor, and Princess Myriah Martell of Dorne are married and have their first son, Baelor Targaryen, later called the Breakspear.
170 AL
Birth of Daemon Blackfyre to Daena the Defiant and Aegon IV.
172 AL
Birth of Aegor Rivers, later called 'Bittersteel', to Aegon IV by Barba Bracken.
175 AL
Birth of Brynden Rivers, later called 'Bloodraven', to Aegon IV by Mysella Blackwood.
172-184 AL
Reign of Aegon IV Targaryen, the Unworthy. On his deathbed Aegon IV legitimises his 'Great Bastards': Daemon Blackfyre, Aegor 'Bittersteel' Rivers, Brynden 'Bloodraven' Rivers and Shiera Seastar. He is succeeded by his son, King Daeron II, but his legitimacy is called into question due to his mother's close relationship with Aemon the Dragonknight.
182 AL
Daemon is given the sword Blackfyre by Aegon IV and acknowledged as his bastard son.
184 AL
Aegon and Aemon Blackfyre are born to Daemon Blackfyre.
193 AL
Ser Arlan of Pennytree wins reknown in a tourney when he overthrows Lord Stokeworth and the Bastard of Harrenhal. Prince Baelor 'Breakspear' Targaryen observes his performance.
195-196 AL
The First Blackfyre Rebellion is fought, which ends at the Battle of Redgrass Field. Daemon Blackfyre is killed by Bloodraven, but several of his sons escape to the Free Cities with Bittersteel and found the Golden Company.
197 AL
Dorne formally joins the Seven Kingdoms through the marriage of Daeron II's sister Daenerys to Prince Moran Martell.
ca. 200 AL
Raymun Redbeard, the King-beyond-the-Wall, invades the North thanks to the lax behaviour of the Night's Watch, whose Lord Commander is later nicknamed Sleepy Jack for his failure. Lord Willam Stark of Winterfell and Lord Harmond Umber, the Drunken Giant, catch the wildlings between their forces on the shores of the Long Lake and destroy them. Lord Willam is killed and is succeeded by his brother, Artos the Implacable. The late-arriving Watchmen are ordered to bury the dead of the battle.
Ser Arlan of Pennytree fights in a tourney at Storm's End, where he unseats Ser Damon Lannister and breaks four lances against Prince Baelor 'Breakspear' Targaryen before being defeated.
209 AL
The events of The Hedge Knight take place. Prince Baelor 'Breakspear' Targaryen, the heir to the throne, is killed in a tourney mishap. A few months later, King Daeron II and Baelor's two sons die in the Great Spring Sickness. Daeron II's second son, Aerys I, becomes king. Prince Baelor's nephew Aegon, or 'Egg', becomes squire to a hedge knight, Ser Duncan the Tall, in the hope of improving his mettle.
ca. 211 AL
The events of The Sworn Sword take place. House Webber and House Osgrey of the Reach become allies. Bloodraven has become the King's Hand by this time, angering Prince Maekar, brother to Aerys and the late Baelor.
The events of The Mystery Knight take place. The Second Blackfyre Rebellion is defeated in its earliest stages.
221-233 AL
The reign of King Maekar after Aerys dies with no issue. During Maekar's reign his eldest son Daeron Targaryen dies of the pox and his second son Aerion 'Brightflame' dies after drinking wildfire. His third son, Aemon, journeys to Oldtown to become a maester. Maekar dies battling an outlaw knight. Aemon refuses the crown and removes himself to the Wall. Prince Aegon becomes Aegon V, the Unlikely as he is the fourth son of a fourth son. Bloodraven is exiled to the Wall, later becoming Lord Commander.
ca. 255-260 AL
The War of the Ninepenny Kings erupts when the Band of Nine, including Maelys Blackfyre, conquers the Free City of Tyrosh and the Stepstones before plotting an attack on the Seven Kingdoms. Ser Barristan Selmy kills Maelys. Ser Brynden Tully distinguishes himself in the war, becoming known as the Blackfish.
257 AL
Kaeth is raised to the rank of Grand Maester but dies after less than a year in office due to advanced age. He is succeeded by Ellendor.
258 AL
Grand Maester Ellendor dies after less than a year in office due to advanced age. He is succeeded by Merion, who dies of a chill before he even reaches King's Landing. The Citadel decides to elects a much younger man more likely to survive a long period and duly elect Pycelle to the rank at the young age of 42.
259-262 AL
The Tragedy of Summerhall. The Targaryen summer palace burns down. King Aegon V and others are killed. Prince Rhaegar Targaryen is born to Aegon's grandson Prince Aerys and his sister-wife Rhaella. Jaehaerys II succeeds Aegon but dies only three years later. Aerys II becomes king, naming the young Tywin Lannister as his Hand.
262 AL
Birth of Brandon Stark.
263 AL
Birth of Eddard Stark.
267 AL
Birth of Lyanna Stark.
ca. 270-280 AL
King Aerys spurns Tywin Lannister's offer of his daughter Cersei for Prince Rhaegar, instead marrying Rhaegar to Princess Elia Martell of Dorne. The Defiance of Duskendale takes place when House Darklyn refuses to pay taxes to the Iron Throne. Aerys, eager to sort out the situation himself, ends up being taken prisoner. Duskendale is besieged for six months before Ser Barristan Selmy manages to free the king. House Darklyn is destroyed and House Rykker takes over the town. It is said that it was the Defiance that began Aerys' descent into madness. Around this time Prince Rhaegar begins corresponding with Aemon Targaryen, maester of Castle Black, and ponders if he is 'The Prince Who Was Promised', who shall be reborn to fight the great darkness when it returns. Later they conclude the prince is actually Rhaegar's baby son, Aegon.
281 AL
The Year of False Spring. Defeat of the Kingswood Brotherhood by a number of knights commanded by a detachment of the Kingsguard. Ser Arthur Dayne kills the leader of the Brotherhood. Jaime Lannister distinguishes himself in the battle and is knighted. Lord Whent holds a great tourney at Harrenhal, where Prince Rhaegar Targaryen distinguishes himself in battle, but names Lyanna Stark of Winterfell (betrothed to Robert Baratheon) Queen of Love and Beauty rather than his own wife. Eddard Stark meets and befriends Howland Reed of Greywater Watch. Jaime becomes a member of the Kingsguard and is disinherited from being his father's heir. Tywin Lannister resigns the Handship in angry protest and returns to Casterly Rock.
282-283 AL - The War of the Usurper
Rhaegar Targaryen abducts Lyanna Stark from King's Landing. Lyanna's brother, Brandon Stark, and her father Rickard demand that Aerys discipline his son, but instead the Mad King kills them both. Eddard Stark, Robert Baratheon and their mentor, Jon Arryn, raise the standard of rebellion. Robert claims the throne through his descent from his great-grandfather, Aegon V Targaryen. The War of the Usurper, also called Robert's Rebellion, begins. Hoster Tully agrees to join the rebellion as well. The Tyrells remain loyal to the king and besiege Robert's castle of Storm's End, held by his brother Stannis. The Hand of the King, Jon Connington, is defeated in the Battle of the Bells and is sent into exile in the Free Cities. The rebel army defeats the royalists at the Battle of the Trident, where Prince Rhaegar is killed by Robert. The Lannisters apparently march to the aid of King Aerys, but instead turn against him and sack the city. King Aerys is killed by Jaime Lannister. Princess Elia Martell and her children, Aegon and Rhaenys Targaryen, are brutally murdered by Lannister bannermen, causing a rift between Eddard Stark and Robert Baratheon. Ned Stark and Howland Reed defeat the Kingsguard holding Lyanna prisoner, only to find her dying. Ned and Robert are reconciled. Robert becomes King of Westeros, marrying Cersei Lannister. Ned returns home to Winterfell with his bastard son, Jon Snow, conceived and born on campaign, although there are conflicting accounts of the identity of his mother. Loyal Targaryen retainers carry Aerys' two youngest children, Viserys and Princess Daenerys, to safety in the Free Cities.
289 AL
The Greyjoy Rebellion: Lord Balon Greyjoy names himself King of the Iron Islands. He is defeated and two of his sons are killed. King Robert accepts his surrender and Balon's remaining son, Theon, becomes a ward and hostage of Eddard Stark.
298 AL
The events of A Song of Ice and Fire begin. The first four novels span a period of two years or more, concluding in the year 300 AL.

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